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您现在的位置:欧盟天然气市场化进程及启示

李博

中国石油北京油气调控中心

 

摘要

随着天然气消费需求的持续增长和产业链结构日趋多元化,我国提出了一系列天然气市场化改革方案以推动天然气产业链市场化并逐渐向竞争性结构演变。欧洲作为世界天然气消费的重要区域,经过多年发展,其天然气市场和储运设施均已相对成熟。伴随着欧盟近年来推行的天然气市场化措施,欧盟的天然气市场经历了较为深刻的重组过程。通过对欧盟天然气市场化进程的研究,探讨了当前欧盟天然气市场的多元化组成和基本运作原理,着重阐述了天然气管道和储气库等储运企业在完全市场化的天然气市场中所扮演的角色及其运营模式,并归纳了其不同输气模式下管输计费方式。总结欧盟的经验可知,天然气市场的市场化需要满足以下条件:①设立必要的监管机构;②以相对成熟的管网设施和消费结构为前提;③制定相应的经济刺激措施以缓解市场化带来的管道投资热情下降等问题。该成果为推动中国天然气市场化改革提供参考。

 

 

关键词 : 欧洲,  天然气,  市场化,  管道,  储气库,  运营模式,  管输费,  监管,  中国      

Abstract:

With the increasing natural gas demand and the diversification of industrial chain, China has proposed a series of reform plans for natural gas marketization to promote the marketization of natural gas industrial chain and the evolution to a competitive structure. As a major natural gas consuming area in the world, Europe has maintained mature natural gas market and storage & transportation facilities through years of development. The EU natural gas market has experienced a relatively profound restructuring with the introduction of natural gas marketization measures. Through reviewing the process of EU natural gas marketization, this paper discusses the diversified components and basic operation principles of the current EU natural gas market, states the roles and operation modes of the storage and transportation enterprises (e.g. natural gas pipeline and gas storage enterprises) in the complete market-oriented natural gas market, and concludes the charging systems under different gas transportation modes. Based on the EU experience, it is concluded that natural gas marketization needs: ① necessary regulation agencies; ② relatively mature pipe network facilities and consumption structure; and ③ appropriate economic incentive measures to motivate the gloomy investment on pipeline infrastructures caused by marketization. These results provide valuable reference for the reform of natural gas market in China.

 

Key words: Europe    Natural gas    Marketization    Pipelines    Storages    Operation mode    Tariff    Regulation,